The design and installation of local heating with a combustion chamber for installation, follows several steps:
1. Determining and calculating the area to be heated and the required power of the water jacket and radiators;
2. Preparation of the design of the installation and determination of the type - closed or open system;
3. Selection and inventory of connections and types of pipelines and their cross sections;
4.Demo test - filling, deaeration and sample of the water installation;
If a larger area (more than one floor) is required, a closed system of pressure is recommended as the loss is less and the fluid transfer is more efficient.
It is first necessary to specify the type of fuel to be used, because it also determines the appliance to be installed. For example: fireplaces with metal combustion chambers are not suitable for coal-burning, because burning coal produces high temperature and a large amount of rock remains. The water jacket itself takes much of the heat and does not get good burning of the coal. When choosing a fireplace, especially with a built-in combustion chamber, we recommend burning mostly dry wood - oak, beech, poplar.
The calculation of the power of the camera depends on the size, type and insulation of the dwelling. The standard for a fully renovated and insulated apartment with a height of 2.5 - 2.7m. , the heating capacity per square meter area is 150 W. If the apartment is not insulated, and with old non-tight joinery this power is 210 W / sq.m.
Power calculation for 1m3:
- for a fully renovated and isolated home - 60W
- the apartment is not isolated - 80W
In partially isolated homes an average value of about 180 W / m2 is taken.
When purchasing radiators, it is advisable to round up the required power for the given room, because at commissioning, it can be adjusted and reduced by thermo-ventilation. This ensures that there is no shortage of power. It is useful to keep in mind that the radiators have a different nominal power, the "sales" typically being at 20 ° C ambient temperature and 90 ° C at the inlet and 70 ° C outgoing water. Under other circumstances, it is usually different.
Radiators can be both panel (steel) and aluminum, cast iron or convector. Convection heaters are more efficient because they very quickly absorb heat from the fluid. They are equipped with air filters and automation. This, however, leads to changes in the parameters of the whole system, because the pump should be not just circulating but also pressurizing.
Additionally, there is a 5-10% advance or so-called "passive power" in order not to use the water jacket's maximum power. When installing the installation, the rated power of the fireplace must be taken into account. Following is the preparation of a project and inventory, calculation of the materials. For maximum efficiency and warranty, it is recommended to use quality multi-layer pipes to well-established manufacturers. The same applies to fittings. This would reduce the probability of repeated drainage of the system and other potential accidents - overheating or boiling. When purchasing pipes, it should be known that the collector that supplies the whole system should be 1 inch in diameter. As the nearby radiators are associated with smaller diameters (eg 16mm) and the distance to the distant ones is larger - 20mm. It all depends on the length of the trails. The cross section is determined by the rule - what power the pipe can carry to the radiator, namely:
F16- up to 3500W
F20 to 5500 W
It should be noted that the pipe that comes out of the combustion chamber is 1 inch of metal, copper or steel so that it can not soften or deform in case of overheating. Galvanized pipes are not suitable because the interaction of zinc with the fluid enhances the corrosion of unprotected metal parts.
This is the step where you have to decide what kind of fluid to use. The possibilities are:
- Water - when using the plant permanently because it does not have to drain frequently. A frequent drain is not recommended, as after a few hours of work the water "kills", contains less oxygen and reduces the corrosion of the water jacket and radiators.
- Anti-freeze - less frequent use. It may be a conventional automotive antifreeze, ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. The first one is very poisonous and definitely not recommended in a home setting. The second (propylene glycol) is very poisonous and is what you need. But its price is higher. Dilution indicative, and according to a group of Soviet scientists, is 50:50 for temperatures down to minus 25-30 ° C, the concentrate freezes and gels at -75 ° C. A ratio of 2: 1 or 60:40 is generally chosen in favor of antifreeze. The fact that propylene glycol is used in addition to having the advantage of not freezing the installation also leads to boiling at higher temperatures. For this purpose, we do not have to use "twist", but only teflon tape. Highly recommended for system fluid
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